The Commonwealth of MassachusettsMassachusetts State Seal

Defender Links Continued

False or Repressed Memory
(See Child Abuse: Sexual)

Attacking The Invisible: Tools For Preventing The Admission of "Recovered Memory" Evidence At Trial
Falsely Accused Resource Page with articles  

False Memories: This page contains information The Rick A. Ross Institute has gathered about False Memories
FMSF This is The False Memory Syndrome Foundation site which deals with       information that focuses on the current controversy about the accuracy of adult claims of "repressed" memories of childhood sexual abuse that are often made decades after the alleged events, for which there is no external corroboration.
Elizabeth Loftus’s web site with information on memory, repressed memory and mistaken identification. She has testified many times on these issues.
Recovered Memories Of Sexual Abuse: Scientific Research & Scholarly Resources A collection of research articles by a doctor who believes that they are legit.


Federal Links

Bureau of Prisons  

CFR Code of Federal Regulations
DEA site

Misconduct Report re FBI Laboratory: An Investigation into Laboratory Practices and Alleged Misconduct in Explosives-Related and Other Cases (April,1997). This is absolutely unbelievable.
Federal Defenders Mass. And NH.      

First Circuit Local Rules
The Federal Judicial Center Reference Manual On Scientific Evidence 2000 Wide ranging topics  from statistics to DNA to toxicology$file/sciman00.pdf
Federal News Service – full text speeches, hearings and debates.  
Federal Rules of Evidence   
First Circuit Home Page
Homeland Security        

PACER Online access to Federal Docket Sheets. Can use to track informants and witnesses.  
US Attorney's Manual: Title 9 is Criminal.  



NLADA Forensics Library Fingerprint Section This has many of the motions to exclude and briefs filed in, among other cases, John Cunha’s Commonwealth v. Patterson case, Amicus Brief submitted to Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts by 16 scientists and scholars and The New England Innocence Project on behalf of Terry Patterson's motion to exclude simultaneous impression latent print evidence; Updated sample discovery motion for use in fingerprint cases, created by Prof. Simon Cole, University of California, Irvine. All you have to do to download is to certify that you are defense counsel. Slow to load but worth it.

Articles Excellent list of scientific articles re: different tests for fingerprints.
Daubert Lists many of the cases where prints have been challenged with all the government Motions in Lim that have been filed and names of all experts who testified in 11 Federal cases! and

Daubert: US v. Mitchell Here is the site with all of the government motions and memos on it: re Daubert

Error Rates Article
FBI guidelines for collection and processing latent prints. and

Fingerprints for Dummies Online text: for Non Experts

Fingerprint: Excellent site with links to other forensic sites. Very Informative. It keeps up with current legal developments.

Latent-prints is a forensic platform focused primarily on latent fingerprints.  It's purpose is for the sharing of articles, ideas, and discussion regarding the impression evidence sciences.  

Reliability of Latent Print Examiner Opinion: Moenssens

Ridges and Furrows This web site is the culmination of many hours spent researching topics related to forensic science and enhancement of latent prints using digital technology and latent print identification.

Skin Hidden Evidence: Latent Prints on Human Skin by Ivan Ross Futrell, April 1996. Mr. Futrell is a supervisory fingerprint specialist in the Latent Fingerprint Section of the FBI Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Recent research proves that identifiable prints can be obtained from the skin of homicide victims under real field conditions, not just in the laboratory.

Skin How to get prints from skin.


Video Simplistic description of symbols used by examiners
The Weekly Detail Online newsletter you can subscribe to about fingerprint developments. The purpose of the Detail is to help keep you informed of the current state of affairs in the latent print community, to provide an avenue to circulate original fingerprint-related articles, and to announce important events as they happen in our field.

Welcome to the World of Fingerprints This site originates from the Netherlands thanks to webmaster Hans van den Nieuwendijk. Many interesting fingerprint topics including a look at a 'no-fingerprint' family! The meaning of this site is to tell you something more about fingerprints, what they are, what we can do with it and how we can use them. It is also a site for fingerprint experts or people that work with fingerprints.

THE WEEKLY DETAIL: The purpose of the Detail is to help keep you informed of the current state of affairs in the latent print community, to provide an avenue to circulate original fingerprint-related articles, and to announce important events as they happen in our field.



Firearms and Ballistics

NLADA Forensics Library Firearms and Ballistics Section This has many of the motions to exclude Daubert and briefs filed in ballistics and gun shot residue cases.

Crime Lab Tutorial Everything you would want to know about crime lab examinations of bullets and weapons. Plus surgical pathology photos This takes a
moment to load.

Daubert Challenge: A Systemic Challenge To The Reliability And Admissibility Of Firearms And Toolmark Identification

Daubert :A Challenge To The Admissibility Of Firearms And Toolmark Identifications: Amicus Brief Prepared On Behalf Of The Defendant In United States V. Kain

A Daubert Challenge to Firearms Identifications by Lisa J. Steele

Firearm Tutorial from what parts of gun and ammo look like to patterns of tissue injury to GSR

Gun Shot Residue FBI Believes The FBI Laboratory continues to believe that the GSR examination is valuable but has decided to use the resources previously dedicated to GSR in areas directly related to fighting terrorism, which is the FBI’s primary mission.

Gun Shot Residue photographs – unbelievable
Gun Shot Residue Tutorial Everything you would want to know about gunshot residue. This takes a moment to load.

How do bullets fly? This article is also thought as an introduction for all types of readers (hunters, sportsmen, ballisticians, forensic scientists), interested in the "mysteries" of the exterior ballistics of bullets, fired from small arms.

Mega Gun & Ammo Site that is updated with all related information including recall notices involving defects, expert testimony, distances, gunshot residue.
Pictures of: Gun, auto loading, semi-automatic, 9 mm pistol with clip; Gun, revolver, .38 cal; Gun, semi-automatic rifle, .308 cal; Bullet cartridges, diagram; Gunshot residue, pattern by SEM-EDX, diagram; Common rifle and handgun cartridges; Deformed bullet recovered from shooting victim; Striations on bullets; Bullet track in clay model.

Pictures Firearm Image Library: Pictures of – you name it – GUNS!;  and  

Sniper's Nest is a page that is dedicated to Law Enforcement Officers, Military Servicemen, Hunters, Marksmen, and all types of responsible shooters that enjoy the skill and discipline involved in successfully operating a firearm. This page contains information on Ballistics, Engagement of Moving Targets, Weapon Specifications, Minute of Angle instructions, Windage, useful Range tips, and general hints and information to help the informed Marksman. Nice pictures. Including definitions at and

State Laws ATF  State Laws and Published Ordinances – Firearms (2004 - 25th Edition)

Federal Laws

Why we cannot rely on firearm forensics

Wound Ballistics Review Articles for example: Forensic Pathology in Firearms Cases; Comments on the "Finger on the Trigger" Issue; The Dynamics of Bullet Contact with Hard Surfaces. 

Wounds Tutorial Everything you would want to know about firearms, wounds with photographs  

Wound: Entrance/Exit Photographs


Footwear, Tool Marks and Tire Track Impressions
[Trace Evidence Hair/Fiber/Blood]

NLADA Forensics Library Firearms and Ballistics Section This has many of the motions to exclude Daubert and briefs filed in ballistics and gun shot residue cases.

Daubert Ruling in Favor of Footware Impression  This doesn’t mean we still can’t try here.

Daubert Rulings In Favor of Footwear Impression Evidence.

Evidence Collection FBI: Forensic Science Communications, April: Handwriting, Typewriting, Shoeprints, and Tire Treads: FBI Laboratory's Questioned Documents Unit: describes protocols, procedures re evidence collection and examination.

Evidence Collection Footwear, The Missed Evidence Describes the often overlooked evidence, how to properly search, preserve and make impressions of it – even in snow - with references to scientific sources.  

Resources for Footwear & Tire Track Impression Examiners featuring Contact Information, Links, References, Training Schedules, Databases and Instructions.


Forensic Mega Pages

NLADA Forensics Library This is an incredible resource on almost every forensics issue we deal with. It contains tutorials, research, sample motions and potential experts. Slow to load but worth it.

AAFS American Academy of Forensic Science: Publishes the Journal of Forensic Sciences at which is THE journal that is always recognized. Both the State Police and Boston Police crime labs have it. Remember we subscribe to this quarterly. The indexes are searchable online at .

ASCLD The American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD) establishes the guidelines for each crime lab for accreditation. May be useful in a Daubert challenge.  

Crimelynx An excellent page which is kept up regularly. Source for criminalistics and forensic information.  

Crime Scene Investigation Lots of information about the proper collection of crime scene evidence and more.

CrimeSpider THIS IS THE BEST SITE!!! Crime Spider searches for the best crime and law enforcement sites, then categorizes topics: criminalistics, forensic anthropology, FBI, unsolved murders, homicide investigation techniques, child abuse, domestic violence, the death penalty, etc.
The Federal Judicial Center Reference Manual On Scientific Evidence 2000 Wide ranging topics  from statistics to DNA to toxicology$file/sciman00.pdf
Forensic Center keeps current with the latest developments. Example: "Tool mark Identification Received A (Frye-Daubert) Body Blow In Florida" Andre Moenssens. Sign up for the email.  

Forensic Evidence A Beginner's Primer on the Investigation of Forensic Evidence. This is an excellent article re: what you should do when you have a forensic issue, including discovery checklists.

Forensic Science Mega Page George Washington University with links to all kinds of forensic areas. Good Page.  

Forensic Science Resources in a Criminal Fact Investigation with bibliographies from arson to blood spatter, etc.  

Forensic Science Portal  This has links to everything

Forensics Talk Blog: “I'm a registered nurse with over 30 years of clinical nursing experience combined with paralegal, forensics, fraud and medicolegal death investigation training. I Practice as a certified Forensic Nurse Examiner and am an independent forensic nurse consultant.”

Henry Lee Web Page Basic forensic info with tour of crime lab and good sound effects

Jeff Flax Great resource from this Federal Public Defender.
Kruglaw’s Forensic and Criminal Law Links to over 1000 sites from forensics to law.  

Misconduct Report re FBI Laboratory: An Investigation into Laboratory Practices and Alleged Misconduct in Explosives-Related and Other Cases (April,1997). This is absolutely unbelievable.

Reddy's Mega Site

Scirus is the most comprehensive science-specific search engine on the Internet. Driven by the latest search engine technology, Scirus searches over 450 million science-specific Web pages 
US Fish and Wildlife Service

Zeno's Forensic Page you can find information on forensic science, forensic medicine and forensic psychiatry. This is a GREAT site: Laboratories; Fields of expertise; Arson; Chemistry; Computer crime; DNA/serology; Documents/ handwriting, Drugs; Engineering; Explosives; Fingerprints; Firearms; Hairs, fibers, Pathology; Image processing; Linguistics/audio; Photography Products; Tool marks, shoeprints, locks       Toxicology; Traffic; Forensic Medicine; Laboratories / institutes; General web pages; Anthropology Craniofacial identification; Entomology; Odontology. Get on his e-mail list for automatic updates.


Forensic Books and Journals

Amazon You can check the table of contents or indexes for information

CRC Forensics textbooks You can check the table of contents or indexes for information  

Crime Scene Investigation Books
DEA Microgram Bulletin is a monthly newsletter published by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration's Office of Forensic Sciences, and is primarily intended to assist and serve forensic scientists concerned with the detection and analyses of suspected controlled substances for forensic/law enforcement purposes.

Discount Books Once you find the book you may be able to get it here at a discount.

FBI Forensic Science Communications is a peer-reviewed forensic science journal published quarterly in January, April, July, and October by FBI Laboratory personnel. It is a means of communication between forensic scientists. You can subscribe to this for free.

FBI Handbook of Forensic Services

FBI The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Forensic Science Bookstore.
Textbook/Learned Treatises This is an excellent resource.
JFS Journal of Forensic Science site. The official publication of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, This is the bible and is on the bookshelves of many crime labs – including the Boston and State Police Crime Lab.

Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology: from polygraph to child suggestibility to false confessions.  

Journals Online with the searchable indexes

Journals Online This site has links to dozens of the scientific forensic journals that you can access on line.

Journal of Science and Justice. You can search the indexes. Seems like the UK version of Forensic Science Communications.
Journal: Scientific Testimony publishes articles, news reports and commentary about the use of scientific evidence in legal proceedings. It also offers an archive of information useful to lawyers, forensic scientists and expert witnesses.
Pub Med This allows you to search at least 11 forensic journals and many more medical journals. For example I got 23 responses for "forensic fingerprint". The idea is to get peer and non peer reviewed articles on the web as soon as possible – with no fee, no registration requirement. It may be a good place to look for writings of various experts in addition to Bowden type of cross examination material.


Freedom of Information

DEA Freedom of Information (FOIA)

FBI's FOIA Website

FOIA First Amendment Project with online instructions.
Federal FOIA It creates the letter after you put in the information. Fully automated online request form.

A Guide to the Massachusetts Public Records Law with sample requests at
Massachusetts State FOIA Online fill in the blanks requests you put in the info!  

US Dept. of Justice FOIA page



Details about gangs in Massachusetts and other states

Gangs or Us Has a lot of info and photos on gang tattoos

Massachusetts DOC Security Threat Group Introduction In the late 1980's the Massachusetts Department of Correction (MDOC) began to experience the emergence of street gang members being incarcerated into their system. The numbers were relatively low and the groups themselves were not organized. However, knowing the impact of gangs, the MDOC started to gather intelligence on gangs and worked closely with other agencies in identifying members.

The California Gang Investigator's Association was founded in 1977 to foster better relationships and networking among the various investigative units working street gangs

18th Street Gang, also known as Eighteen St, is a Los Angeles-based Hispanic street gang Present in Massachusetts

You Tube has a lot of videos. For example see Boston Bloods LMAO and others at


Handwriting Questioned Documents

Handwriting Analysts Group This page has examples with explanations of analysis.

Journal of the American Society of Questioned Document Examiners with its online journal abstracts :

Meeting the Daubert Challenge: A Bibliography of Handwriting Articles for the Forensic Document Examiner Forensic Science Communications

Motion to Exclude: US v. Timothy McVeigh

Motion to Exclude – Allowed:

Motion to Exclude – Allowed in part: US v. Hines Gertner, J. did not permit the handwriting expert to make any ultimate conclusions on the actual authorship of the questioned writing.

NLADA Handwriting Library Motions and Research. Slow to load but worth it.  
Protocols FBI Publication: Forensic Science Communications, Handwriting, Typewriting, Shoeprints, and Tire Treads: FBI Laboratory's Questioned Documents Unit

SWGDOC Protocols FBI Publication: Forensic Science Communications, April:       Handwriting, Typewriting, Shoeprints, and Tire Treads: FBI Laboratory's Questioned Documents Unit: describes protocols, procedures re evidence collection and examination.


Identification: Mistaken

Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement: Outlines basic procedures to obtain the most reliable and accurate information from eyewitnesses. Topics discussed in this NIJ Research Report include procedures for inter-viewing witnesses and procedures for witness identification of suspects. and

Report Of The Task Force On Eyewitness Evidence Suffolk County  Adopts the procedures suggested by DOJ. Both are useful for cross examination and motions to suppress.

Eyewitness Identification Reform Litigation Network NYS Defender Association: latest developments. Updated often. Has articles and expert information
Eyewitness Consortium with latest news and studies  run by Gary Wells        
Eyewitness Laboratory in the Psychology Department at the University of  Texas at El Paso (UTEP) focuses on research in eyewitness memory and identification, and many aspects of face recognition. Has many studies and links online.
Elizabeth Loftus Home Page with links to her research articles. She has testified many times on these issues. She can be contacted at: and her office phone number is 206-543-7184.

Eyewitness Accuracy and Distance "Misidentifications can occur, and the quality of memory is limited by the distance at which a witness sees a person. This research, which specifies mathematically the relation between memory quality and distance, results in our being able to present intuitive information to a jury, which can help it come to the best possible decision in a case."

Eyewitness Identification - Human Factors

Gary Wells article re: Eyewitness Identification Procedures: Recommendations for Lineups and Photo spreads. This is the official position paper of the American Psychology-Law Society.  This is great start for learning about mistaken identification issues: mistaken memory and identification, lineups, suggestibility with videos. It has a lot of links to the literature via Gary Wells – Psychologist. See a list of all of his studies: His very useful homepage is 

Georgia Eyewitness ID Resource for Defense Attorneys This is a brand new resorce started by Emory and Northeastern. You must be a member

The Innocence Project  eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing. 

Kassin's Online research on eyewitness identification unreliability:

NLADA Forensic Eyewitness Identification Library  Another excellent source for motions, articles and court opinions.

Police Officer and Eyewitness Memory: Literature supporting the principle that police are no better at identifying someone than anyone else.       

Perceptual and Memory Distortion During Officer-Involved Shootings

Visual Cognition Lab Here’s a website that has short videos with real people that brings home the fact that we don’t see what we think we see. 

Words Get in the Way A series of laboratory studies found that memories for a mock criminal's face were much poorer among eyewitnesses who had described what the perpetrator looked like shortly after seeing him, compared with those who hadn't.


The Innocence Project Informants / Snitches In more than 15% of cases of wrongful conviction overturned by DNA testing, an informant or jailhouse snitch testified against the defendant. Often, statements from people with incentives to testify – particularly incentives that are not disclosed to the jury – are the central evidence in convicting an innocent person.

The Inquiry Regarding Thomas Sophonow  As a result of this infamous case in Canada the policies regarding informants was changed

Mass. Probation

Mass Superior Court Dockets

PACER This is online access to Federal Decisions and docket sheets and often the documents themselves. It has a very minimal fee – pennies. I’ve  used it to get info on a snitch which was invaluable!

The Us Attorney General’s Guidelines Regarding The Use Of Confidential Informants post Whitey Bulger and FBI agents on the take  or

Who’s a rat? Largest online database of informants and agents



Crime and Clues Crime Scene And Criminal Investigations Mega Site with daily updates. It is very good.

Investigator’s Toolbox: Online resources from phone numbers to vital records.

Public Defender Investigator Network a collection of (hopefully) useful links for criminal defense investigators, especially those who work for indigent defendants.

Virtual Gumshoe  Free Resources for investigators




Youth Advocacy Division [YAD] A must site if you represent any juvenile.
Frequently Asked Questions For Lawyers & Advocates A must review for quick information.

Medications The National Juvenile Defender Center has on its web site a chart of medications commonly used to treat mental health disorders in children and adolescents. The information here includes type of medication, generic name, approved age, what it is intended to treat, and common side effects. Click on this link to get the chart

PTSD National Center for PTSD web site. For information on kids, click on "topics" then scroll down to "Children and Adolescents.



Legal Research

CPCS Training Bulletins PDF

Mass. Constitution and Declaration of Rights.       

Mass CORI Reader How to understand probation records and rights

Mass. Daily Slip Opinions from all Mass. Courts, including Superior Court, are now available through the Lawyers Weekly Archives!

Mass. Domestic Violence Guidelines    

Mass. General Laws

Mass. Law Libraries Online Lists all texts and periodicals as well as locations, etc.
Massachusetts Lawyer’s Weekly  

Preliminary Draft of the Massachusetts Guide to Evidence which is also available on the Massachusetts Court System web site at:

Mass. Probation Violation Rules District Court

Mass. Public’s Access Guidelines to Judicial Proceedings and Records

Mass. Rules of Criminal Procedure

Mass. Rules of Criminal Procedure Amendments with Reporter’s Notes

Mass. Sentencing Guidelines  

Mass. SJC Standards on Drug Abuse Can be useful for disposition

Mass. SJC Reporter  slip opinions, docket entries, calendar, webcasts of oral arguments at

Mass SJC Watch oral arguments online

Mass. Social Law Library Access to the following searchable databases: Mass. General Laws; Supreme Judicial Court Opinions (1937 to May 14, 1997); Appeals Court Opinions (1972 to May 14, 1997); Superior Court Opinions (November, 1997 to February 20th, 1998).

Mass. Superior and District Courts Index with address and phone numbers

Mass Superior Court Dockets
Court TV covers all their trials and often has motions and transcripts  available.

Criminal Justice Sites Links to Criminal Justice Related Sites: Federal Government The FBI, CIA, Senate, etc. Judicial Court opinions, including the US Supreme Court. Websites related to constitutional rights and other issues. Legal Resources Sites with legal information, including law journals, law libraries and law schools. Libraries On-line card catalogs and information.

Criminal Penalties Out of State Need to find what the penalty is for an   out of state crime? Check here. 

Criminal Records and Employment: Ex-Offenders Thwarted in Attempts to Earn a Living for Their Families" in "Every Door Closed: Barriers Facing Parents With Criminal Records," from the Center for Law and Social Policy which is available at    

FINDLAW You can search Government Departments, US Code, Federal Regulations, Supreme Court and Circuit Court Cases, Federal Government databases and other US States state government servers – including Massachusetts. You can also search more than 60 law review articles, check current legal news.

First Circuit decisions online.

Foreign Law UNODC's on-line legal library makes available the full text of laws and regulations promulgated by States to give effect to the three main international drug control treaties. Under the treaty conventions, States have an obligation to communicate their drug control legislation to the United Nations. Most States communicate such legislation to UNODC on a voluntary basis. Legislation adopted since 1948 has been included on-line.

Get A Document The Massachusetts Trial Court Law Libraries can provide you with documents from any source  in our collection, within the limits of the copyright notice below. You need to have a citation, such as 450 Mass. 1, 32 BU Law Review 15, 130 CMR 50.02, in order for us to complete your request.

Legal Engine Valuable Legal Search Site [from John Hayes]

Legal Journals Online. Example: Harvard Journal of Law & Technology.

Legal Journals Online This is the largest index of online journals which  contains legal, medical, psychology, social sciences, etc.

Mass Superior Court Dockets

PACER This is online access to Federal Decisions and docket sheets and often the documents themselves. It has a very minimal fee – pennies. I’ve  used it to get info on a snitch which was invaluable!

NACDL The Champion has a lot on online articles written by experienced defense lawyers$$searchChampion

US Supreme Court Home Page

US Supreme Court Decisions since 1990

U.S. Legal Research Page Meta-Index for. You can find Law Review  articles, US Supreme Court decisions, Congressional Record transcripts and Federal Court decisions.