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Defender Links Continued

Self Defense

Defending the Self-Defense Case NACDL 2007,rape

I Know I Must Have Shot, But I Can’t Remember: Memory Impairment After Critical Incidents

Inter-Limb Interaction is a phenomenon called inter-limb interaction. This is a term used to describe the involuntary contraction of an individual's hand and finger muscles under stressful conditions.

The Judicious Use of Force: You can use these police studies to show why when your client fired off 14 shots it really wasn’t his fault

Perceptual and Memory Distortion During Officer-Involved Shootings, FBI L. Enforcement Bultn. 18, 18 (Oct. 2002)

Lowering Pursuit Induced Adrenaline Overloads:  The Key To Increasing Officer Safety And Reducing Overreactions

Stress Reactions Related to Lethal Force Encounters

When battered women use violence: husband-abuse or self-defense?


Serial Killers and the Like

Kressler Site He left the FBI's Behavioral Science Unit seven years ago after thirty years of investigative experience.

Mayhem Unbelievable! Great sound effects, bullets, etc.

Modus Operandi  

World Wide Serial Killer Page


Sexual Assault
[See Child Abuse]

Boston Police Sexual Assault Unit and its FAQ [very interesting]

Condom Trace Evidence: A New Factor in Sexual Assault Investigations By Blackledge, M.S.  [This Article Originally Appeared in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, May 1996.]

Rape Penalties from Norfolk DA

Saliva Semen

SANE Protocols  Useful in preparing cross and discovery requests or

SANE Protocols Massachusetts and

Sexual Assault Evidence: National Assessment and Guidebook
Author(s): R. E. Gaensslen Ph.D. ; Henry C. Lee Ph.D.  NCJRS Publication

Spermatozoa Capture During the Differential Extraction Process for STR Typing of Sexual Assault Evidence NCJRS Publication

Emergency Contraceptive Pill- ECP: Everyone is offered this option.
Evidence Collection and Care of the Sexual Assault Survivor: The SANE-SART Response       

Massachusetts S.A.N.E. Designated Sites: These hospitals must use the Rape Kits and follow SANE protocols.       

Serological Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations [This Article Originally Appeared in the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, October 1990.]

Sexual Assault in Massachusetts, 1988-1997: Findings from Publicly-Funded Rape Crisis Centers and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (1999)       
'Sperm clock' could pinpoint time of a rape The predictable death of sperm in condoms laced with spermicide could help police pinpoint the time of a rape, and possibly even corroborate the testimony of the victim or the defendant.
Statistics: Rape and Sexual Assault: Reporting to Police and Medical Attention, 1992-2000.  This periodic BJS release presents information on the consequences of rape and sexual assault for female victims. The study provides the percentages of completed rape, attempted rape, and sexual assault of females that were reported to the police in 1992-2000. (NCJ 194530) or



Sex Offender Registry


Applicable Crimes: or or

Regulations and Forms If you are currently representing a sex offender in a SORB-related proceeding, it's important that you have a copy of the new regulations.  You can call the Board at 978-740-6400 and request a copy, or they are available online at: or


Sexually Dangerous Person: Latest News

CPCS SDP Page Make sure you start here. or    

Dictionary Of Sexology Compiled by G. F. Pranzarone, Ph.D. Recommended as a must read for SDP cases


Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Massachusetts Department of Public Health Fact Sheets Everything you don’t need to know about STD’s. This site has current information re: sexually transmitted diseases with fact sheets about symptoms. They are also very helpful on the phone and potential expert witnesses. or

Sexually Transmitted Disease and Child Abuse DOJ Portable Guide
Tutorials and Photos This electronic resource includes over 1900 images along with text, tutorials, and laboratory exercises that demonstrate gross and microscopic pathologic findings associated with human disease conditions. A web browser equivalent to Netscape 4 is recommended to  access this resource. 


Shelters/Substance Abuse/Mental Health


Homeless Shelters Nationwide  Might come in handy for looking for witnesses.

Massachusetts Battered Women Shelters Lists addresses and phone numbers  or
Massachusetts Domestic Violence Shelters Lists addresses and phone numbers

Massachusetts drug rehab centers and drug treatment programs. The following centers are all located in the state of Massachusetts.
Mental health facilities state by state: Here is a site that can help you find the addresses for the nearest 10 or so substance-abuse programs—whether they are just blocks or tens of miles away   or

Substance Abuse Network in Mass. You can use this directory to find substance abuse treatment services.  Go to "Find Services Near You."

Substance Abuse Services You can customize your search statewide
Substance Abuse Directory for Massachusetts  or


Trace Evidence Hair/Fiber/Blood
[See Crime Scene Investigations]

FBI Handbook of Forensic Services  The purpose of the Handbook of Forensic Services is to provide guidance and procedures for safe and efficient methods of collecting, preserving, packaging, and shipping evidence and to describe the forensic examinations performed by the FBI's Laboratory Division and Investigative Technology Division.

Animal Hair Atlas:

Blood: Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence from Crime Scenes  

Blood: Luminol Good discussion of testimony regarding luminol hits after confirmatory testing could not establish that the "hit" was in fact blood.  The opinion is posted in PDF format on this website.

Blood: How luminol works

Blood: Luminol Photo b 

Fiber Examination Guidelines adopted by the FBI. and

Glass Hair Trace Evidence FBI guidelines for examining 1999.

Paint Analysis and Comparison Guidelines adopted by the FBI.   

Soil examination guidelines for the FBI. March 2001.

SWGMAT is the FBI - supported Scientific Working Group for Trace Evidence.



Babel Fish Translator
Your Dictionary Searches in 260 languages/100 specialties

Free translators on line:  or



Blood Spatter Slide Show Tutorial  and or  

Computer Email multimedia tutorial

Crime Lab Tutorial Everything you would want to know about crime lab examinations of bullets and weapons. Plus surgical pathology photos This takes a
moment to load.

Crime Lab Walk Through  This has photos of various types of forensic techniques supported by experts and learned treatises

Crime Scene and DNA Basics for Forensic Analysts course. The first lesson addresses the importance of documenting, protecting, and preserving the scene and what types of evidence can be found there and methods used for its collection and preservation. All you have to do is register

Crime statistics tutorial. See: A Bare Bones Guide on how to find stats on crime. Useful for voir dire  or

Dexter Showtime’s great show about a forensic criminalist who is a serial killer This is a great video series about blood spatter

DNA Testing: An Introduction for Non-Scientists - An illustrated explanation by Donald E. Riley, Ph.D. This primer on DNA evidence is designed to help people who are new to the area get up to speed quickly on the technology and terminology involved in forensic DNA testing.
DNA Basics for Forensic Analysts course The second lesson addresses the historical use and disadvantages of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), the method and sequence of steps in which DNA profiles are developed, and the concept of short tandem repeats (STR) testing and its advantages over earlier methods.

DNA NFSTC Multimedia Slide Show Tutorial

Drug Abuse Pathology with slides of what drugs and alcohol do to the different parts of the body.      

False Confessions Library NLADA Tutorial, Motions and instructions plus research. Slow to load but worth it.

Firearm Tutorial from what parts of gun and ammo look like to patterns of tissue injury to GSR

Forensic Evidence A Beginner's Primer on the Investigation of Forensic Evidence. This is an excellent article re: what you should do when you have a forensic issue, including discovery checklists.

GC/MS Analysis by Frederic Douglas: A short primer for lawyers on gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

GC/MS walk through with movies!

Crime Lab Tutorial Everything you would want to know about crime lab examinations of bullets and weapons. Plus surgical pathology photos This takes a
moment to load.

Laboratory Orientation and Testing of Body Fluids and Tissues for Forensic Analysts The second lesson is an overview of historical and contemporary techniques used to characterize body tissues. Some techniques are still used in the examination of body fluids, while knowledge of others, such as ABO and multi-enzyme systems, is of value if old cases are opened for review.

Tutorials of the following: Shaken baby syndrome, retinal hemorrhages; Strangulation: Mechanical asphyxia with conjunctival petechiae; Head Injuries: Skull fracture, base, orbital plate; Skull fractures, cranial vault; .Scalp contusions; Defensive Wounds: Mechanism of defense wounds; Defense wound on forearm; Defense wounds on hand; Mechanism of defense wounds; Defense wound on forearm; Defense wounds on hand; Gunshot Wounds: Contact range gunshot wound; Contact range gunshot wound; Contact range gunshot wound; Contact range gunshot wound; Range of fire, gunshot to skull, diagram; Skull, contact range gunshot wound; Gunshot entrance wound with GSR, microsopic ; Intermediate range gunshot wound; Entrance and Exit wounds. Entrance-exit wound in close proximity from low angle of bullet entrance, gross Exit gunshot wound.  This takes a
moment to load.

Virtual OZ Welcome to Virtual Oz! Hit the START button to get going. This is a pretty realistic vision of a maximum security facility.




Historical Weather Conditions So you want to know what the weather was like on some past day. Well, this page is going to show you how to get the data you need.  or    

National Climate Data

Sunrise/sunset times on the website of the U.S. Naval Observatory, in case anyone is interested, at

Time and Date

Weather Underground


Witness Locating: Military

Home Page for locating person in all branches  

How to Locate Military People  

Locating Military People Procedures




Witness Locating: Telephone Numbers

Area Code Lookup       

Google  Type a phone number into Google, it will often disclose the name of the phone subscriber, address and even a link to a yahoo map. You need to write the number in this form 617-482-6212.

Langenberg A sometimes-useful link for phone numbers, reverse directories, emails and such:
Reverse Directory  This contains a reverse phone number directory in addition to trying to locate a witness or
Reverse Directory http://www.anywho.c